Mary Lee Jensvold, Ph.D currently is the Primate Communication Scientist and Associate Director at Fauna Foundation in Carignan, Quebec. She is former director of the Chimpanzee & Human Communication Institute and is a Senior Lecturer in the Primate Behavior and Ecology Program and Anthropology Department at Central Washington University. She has 35 years experience working in chimpanzee sanctuaries in care, management, and design. Her expertise is in behavior and communication, including American Sign Language in chimpanzees and other apes. Her research includes communication among and between chimpanzees and humans, and captive caregiving practices. She is a member of the board of directors of the Animal Welfare Institute, Fauna Foundation, and Friends of Washoe. She has numerous publications in journals and books and recently edited the book Chimpanzee Behaviour: Recent Understandings from Captivity and the Forest.